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Contributions of Long-Range Transported and Locally Emitted Nitrate in Size-Segregated Aerosols in Japan at Kyushu and Okinawa

Category: Observational and model studies to distinguish between locally emitted and long-range-transported

Volume: 17 | Issue: 12 | Pages: 3119-3127
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2016.12.0587
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Shiori Tatsuta1, Kojiro Shimada2, Chak K. Chan3, Yong Pyo Kim2,4, Neng-Huei Lin2,5, Akinori Takami6, Shiro Hatakeyama 1,2,7

  • 1 Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan
  • 2 Global Innovation Research Organization, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8538, Japan
  • 3 School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
  • 4 Department of Environmental Science & Engineering and Department of Chemical, Engineering & Materials Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea
  • 5 Department of Atmospheric Sciences and Department of Chemistry, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan
  • 6 National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
  • 7 Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, Kazo, Saitama 347-0115, Japan


Contribution of nitrates long-range-transportedand locally emitted were evaluated.
Pb concentration and Pb/Curatiowas used to distinguish transport situation.
Transboundary nitrate contributed 50–60%in particle size range of 0.5 < Dp < 10 µm.
Transboundary nitrate contributed ~20% in particle size range of 0.1 < Dp < 0.5 µm.


We observed the size distributions of mass concentration, ionic composition, and trace metal concentration in aerosols collected at an urban site in Kumamoto Prefecture (KM) and a rural site at Cape Hedo in Okinawa Prefecture (HD) between 2012 and 2015. To evaluate the contribution of transboundary nitrate and locally emitted nitrate in the aerosols at Kumamoto, we distinguished between days of transboundary air pollution from East Asia and days of local air pollution on the basis of a threshold for Pb concentration and the ratio Pb (in 0.5 < projected area diameter (Dp) < 1.0 µm)/Cu (in 2.5 < Dp < 10 µm). Fine nitrate (particulate NH4NO3) did not arrive at HD from the Asian continent even under long-range transport conditions. Fine nitrate emitted in Kumamoto and its vicinity also was not transported to HD, even in an air mass that passed over KM and reached HD within one day. Almost all fine nitrate was converted to coarse nitrate during transport by dissociation of fine nitrate and adsorption of HNO3 on larger aerosol particles. Transboundary nitrate existed largely in the particle size range of 0.5 < Dp < 10 µm, and the contribution of transboundary nitrate in the particle size range of 0.1 < Dp < 0.5 µm was about 20% even under long-range transport conditions. The contribution of transboundary nitrate in particles with Dp < 2.5 µm at KM was approximately 50%, 50%, and 80% in spring, autumn, and winter, respectively.


Nitrate Transport of fine nitrate East Asia Contribution of long-range transport and local air pollution

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