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Measurement of Ambient PAHs in Kumamoto: Differentiating Local and Transboundary Air Pollution

Category: Observational and model studies to distinguish between locally emitted and long-range-transported

Volume: 17 | Issue: 12 | Pages: 3106-3118
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2016.12.0585
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Taichi Sugiyama1, Kojiro Shimada 2,3, Kaori Miura4, Neng-Huei Lin2,5, Yong Pyo Kim2,6, Chak K. Chan7, Akinori Takami8, Shiro Hatakeyama2,9

  • 1 Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
  • 2 Global Innovation Research Organization, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 1083-8538, Japan
  • 3 Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8050, Japan
  • 4 Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 1083-8538, Japan
  • 5 Department of Atmospheric Science and Department of Chemistry, National Central University, Chung-Li 32001, Taiwan
  • 6 Department of Chemical, Engineering & Materials Science and Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea
  • 7 School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
  • 8 National Institute for Environmental Studies, Ibaraki 305-0053, Japan
  • 9 Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, Saitama 347-0115, Japan


PAHs and trace metals in aerosols were detected in Kumamoto City in 2014 and 2015.
IcdP/Pb ratio can differentiate between transboundary pollution and local pollution.
The contribution of transboundary pollution was 46% in Kumamoto.


We developed an index to investigate the effect of transboundary air pollution (TAP) on the air quality of Kumamoto City, Japan. We estimated the effect of TAP by using the index and positive matrix factorization (PMF). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace metals were analyzed from the daily samples of the Total Suspended Particles (TSPs) collected seasonally from Oct. 2014 to Aug. 2015. These chemical components exhibited high concentrations in spring and winter, which is consistent with the data in the literature. Pb was identified as the TAP tracer owing to its high concentrations in winter and spring. Indeno(1, 2, 3-cd)pyrene (IcdP) was used as the local emission tracer in Kumamoto on the basis of previous studies. We applied the IcdP/Pb ratio as the index. The index enables the detection of TAP in daily data sets. PMF identified six factors: soil and road dust, biomass and waste burning, heavy oil combustion, fishing boats, vehicle emission, and coal combustion. The average contribution of TAP on the days when transboundary pollution was high was evaluated as being 46%.


Indeno(1, 2, 3-cd)pyrene Lead Contribution of transboundary air pollution Contribution of local air pollution PMF analysis

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