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Particle-bound PAHs and Particle-extract-induced Cytotoxicity of Emission from a Diesel-generator Fuelled with Soy-biodiesel

Category: Articles

Volume: 11 | Issue: 7 | Pages: 822-836
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2011.08.0119

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Jen-Hsiung Tsai1, Kuo-Lin Huang1, Chuen-Huey Chiu1, Chih-Chung Lin1, Wen-Chien Kuo1, Wen-Yinn Lin2, Hso-Chi Chaung3, Tsung-Hui Yang3, Shui-Jen Chen 1

  • 1 Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung County, Nei Pu 91201, Taiwan
  • 2 Institute of Environmental Engineering and Management, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan
  • 3 Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung County, Nei Pu, 91201, Taiwan


This study investigates the size distribution of nano/ultrafine particle-bound PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and the PAH-associated carcinogenic potency/cytotoxicity of the exhaust from a generator that is fuelled with D100 (pure petroleum diesel) and S20 (v/v = 20% soy-biodiesel/80% D100) and operated at stable energy output loads (0 and 3 kW). A micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) and a Nano-MOUDI (with aerodynamic diameters of 0.01–18 μm) were used to collect PM samples. The cytotoxicity of the organic solvent extracts of PM samples to the human male monocytic cell strain (U937) was evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) method. The results indicate that at both loads, using S20 in place of D100 effectively reduced the emissions of DEPs, PAHs in the DEPs, and PAHs-associated BaPeq; furthermore, the unit mass cytotoxicity of ultrafine particles and nano-particles in the DEPs was also lowered (by an average of 52.6%). Therefore, soybean biodiesel (S20) can be used as an alternative fuel to petroleum diesel to reduce the hazards of emissions from diesel engines to human health.


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Biodiesel Particle size distribution Cytotoxicity

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