A total of 258 particulate matter (PM10) filter samples and 69 source samples applicable to receptor model source apportionment were collected and chemically analyzed from February to August 2007 in Panzhihua, China. Contributive sources were identified and the chemical profiles were reported for resuspended dust, paved and unpaved road dust, coal-fired power plant exhaust, emissions from coking plants and other industrial sources in Panzhihua. All samples were analyzed for 19 elements (Na-Pb), two ions (NO3– and SO42–) and organic and total carbon. Elevated abundances of geological components (Al, Si, Ca and Fe) from fugitive dust materials and elements (Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu and Zn) from special industry plants were found in the profiles. The contributions to the ambient PM10 levels at six sites in three seasons (spring, summer and winter) were estimated using a chemical mass balance receptor model. The concentration of PM10 was high (150 μg/m3) on winter days and low in summer and spring (133 and 129 μg/m3, respectively). Apportionment results indicate that coal combustion ash, iron and steel industry dust, vehicle exhaust and secondary SO42– were major contributors, accounting for about 70% of PM10. More attention should be paid to particulate matter emitted by iron and steel manufacturing facilities in view of high contribution and potentially toxic metals.