Soft X-rays with a wave length of 1.3 × 10-4 – 4.1 × 10-4 m were tested for use in studying the decomposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), widespread hazardous and carcinogenic pollutants that are emitted during biomass burning. Both size-fractionated and -unfractionated smoke particles, after irradiation by the soft X-rays, were collected on quartz-fiber filters using two different residence times through the irradiating zone to determine the effect of the soft X-ray irradiation on particle-bound PAH concentration. Smoke particles produced by rubberwood burning had a single modal size distribution consisting of fine particles less than 2 m and a large mass fraction of PAHs in particles that were about 5 times higher than the urban ambient particles. The PAHs in the rubberwood smoke were decomposed by soft X-ray irradiation up to about 30%, essentially independent of the duration of the irradiation (0.022-0.067 sec) and with a slight dependence on the boiling temperature of each PAH composition. From the irradiation test for the size fractionated particles, PAHs in finer fraction particles were found to be decomposed more effectively. Soft X-rays have the potential for use as an effective device for pollution control.